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Synchronisation ISO 3166-1 and DNS root

  • To: cctld-sunset-comments@xxxxxxxxx
  • Subject: Synchronisation ISO 3166-1 and DNS root
  • From: Elisabeth Porteneuve <Elisabeth.Porteneuve@xxxxxxxxxxxx>
  • Date: Tue, 12 Dec 2006 14:50:53 +0100 (MET)

> 2. Retiring country-code top-level domains
> We are looking to create a specific procedure on how to remove ccTLDs 
> from the DNS root that are no longer valid ISO-3166 codes. This needs to 
> balance the needs of those who have existing registrations that predate 
> the change of country-code, with the need to predictably remove
> delegations to keep ccTLDs consistent with the ISO-3166 standard.
>    http://www.icann.org/announcements/announcement-2-05dec06.htm
> Comments are very welcome on either review until January 31, 2007. After 
> that date the contributions will be compiled into draft operational 
> procedures.

Good morning,

I wish to comment on the ICANN's document itself, "Discussion Paper on 
Retiring Country Code Top-Level Domains" and not (yet) on the important
questions this document raises, cf. 

The ICANN's document does not provide neither dates nor any context 
of the past retired countries codes TLDs, and as such may suggest that 
the problems are different from what they are. Let me complete this 
information for 5 listes cases (actually all ccTLD cases since the origin): 
CS, SU, YU, ZR and TP.

Elisabeth Porteneuve

1.      Czechoslovakia's "CS"

1.1.   The computer nodes on EARN/Bitnet outside of the USA started to use 
the ISO 3166-1 prefixes in the mid of 1980's. The EARN/BitNet arrived to 
Czechoslovakia on 11 October 1990. The main Czechoslovakia's node was CSEARN 
(Czech Technical University in Prague). The original index of EARN/Bitnet 
nodes published in December 1992 shows 12 nodes in Czechoslovakia.

1.2.   The "CS" code for Czechoslovakia was added on Internet Connectivity's 
map maintained by Larry Landweber between December 1991 and February 1992, 
cf. http://www.ccwhois.org/ccwhois/connectivityrecord.html.

1.3.   According to the old IANA ccTLD's database extracted in August 1999, 
the "CZ" was added to the root on 13 January 1993, and the "SK" on 29 March 
1993, cf. http://www.ccwhois.org/ccwhois/cctld/ccTLDs-by-date.html

1.4.   The ISO 3166/MA changed its lists on 15 June 1993, adding "CZ" and 
"SK", and deleting "CS". At that time the ISO 3166/MA rule on deleted code 
was to not use it for the 10 years.

1.5.   The Czechoslovak's community prepared the "CS" migration to "CZ" and 
"SK" during 1992, and executed it before the end of 1993. That migration was 
only related to the email, at that time there was no website under "CS", and 
the very early Internet community was extremely small.

1.6.   The CS history compiled by myself in October 2003 is here 

2.      Soviet Union's "SU"

2.1.   The Soviet Union splintered into Russia and 14 other independent 
republics in December 1991.

2.2.   The original index of EARN/Bitnet nodes published in December 1992 
shows 4 nodes in Russia annotated as "Soviet Union".

2.3.   The "SU" code was added on Internet Connectivity's map maintained by 
Larry Landweber in April 1993, cf. 

2.4.   More than 5 years were necessary to add to the root all 15 codes of 
countries which composed the former Soviet Union, cf. 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republics_of_the_Soviet_Union and 

        *   920603 EE-DOM Estonia
        *   920603 LT-DOM Lithuania
        *   921201 UA1-DOM Ukraine
        *   921202 GE1-DOM Georgia
        *   930429 LV-DOM Latvia
        *   930825 AZ-DOM Azerbaijan
        *   940324 MD3-DOM Moldova
        *   940407 RU-DOM Russia
        *   940510 BY-DOM Belarus
        *   940826 AM2-DOM Armenia
        *   940919 KZ-DOM Kazakhstan
        *   950429 UZ-DOM Uzbekistan
        *   950712 KG2-DOM Kyrgyzstan
        *   970530 TM9-DOM Turkmenistan
        *   971211 TJ19-DOM Tajikistan

3.      Yugoslavia's "YU":

3.1.   The former Yugoslavia started to split into independent republics in 
1991, the last split did happen in 2006.

3.2.   The original index of EARN/Bitnet nodes published in December 1992 
shows 5 nodes in Yugoslavia (in Belgrade, Zagreb and Ljubljana)

3.3.   The "YU" code was added to the root on 15 June 1989.

3.4.   It took more than 4 years to add to the root some of the codes of 
countries which composed the former Yugoslavia, including unfortunate reuse 
of "CS" for "Serbia and Montenegro" in 2003, cf. 

        *   890615 YU2-DOM Yugoslavia
        *   920401 SI1-DOM Slovenia
        *   920421 AL-DOM Albania
        *   930227 HR-DOM Croatia / Hrvatska
        *   930923 MK2-DOM Macedonia
        *   960814 BA6-DOM Bosnia-Hercegovina

3.5.   The good news is that "CS" for "Serbia and Montenegro", while added 
to the root in 2004, was never used ("YU" was used instead), and eventually 
decommissioned by the ISO 3166 in September 2006.

3.6.   The most recent split in former Yugoslavia did happen in 2006, the 
"Serbia and Montenegro" created in 2003, became two different states. The 
"CS" allocated in 2003 for "Serbia and Montenegro" was replaced by "RS" for 
Serbia and "ME" for Montenegro. Today the ISO 3166/MA's rule on deleted code 
is to not use it for the 50 years.

4.      Zaire's "ZR":

4.1.   The "ZR" code for Zaire was added to the root on 26 September 1996.

4.2.   The "CD" code for the same country (renamed Congo Democratic) was 
added to the root on 20 August 1997. Apparently the migration from "ZR" to 
"CD" started very early, and the zonefile was very small.

4.3.   The "ZR" has been deleted in 2001, cf. 

5.      East Timor's "TP":

5.1.   The "TP" code for East Timor was added to the root on 9 May 1997.

5.2.   The change in the name of the country to "Timor Leste" and "TL" has 
been recorded by ISO 3166/MA on 15 November 2002, cf. 

5.3.   According to the incomplete IANA website (date of creation missing, 
cf. http://www.iana.org/root-whois/tl.htm), the "TL" has been added to the 
root on January 2005, cf. http://www.iana.org/reports/cctld-reports.htm

5.4.   More than 2 years were necessary to add to the root the new 2-letters 

ICANN's document says:

 A select list of ISO 3166-1 alterations that help illustrate the dimension 
 of the issue are:
 Zaire's ("ZR") renaming to the Democratic Republic of the Congo ("CD").
 The breakup of the Soviet Union resulting in the code "SU" being replaced 
 with codes for the independent states, such as "RU", "BY", and "UA". Every 
 former soviet state has a new code, which been allocated to an operator by 
 East Timor's code changing from "TP" to "TL".
 Czechoslovakia's ("CS") division into the Czech Republic ("CZ") and Slovakia 
 The remaining components of Yugoslavia ("YU") becoming Serbia and Montenegro 
 ("CS"). Following a referendum, in September 2006 Serbia and Montenegro 
 further split into two independent identities Serbia ("RS") and Montenegro 

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